The Manifesto-appeal of the Nobel Prizewinners
Project location: ITALY, Rome
Project start date: n/a - Project end date: n/a
On June 24, 1981 a document formulated by the Radical Party against extermination by hunger and signed by dozens of Nobel Prizewinners, was distributed in the major western capitals. It was the answer of men of science to the indifference of governments, the mass media and individuals, to the grim figures announcing the certain death of millions of people from starvation in the southern hemisphere.
The Manifesto indicated precisely what to do to put an end to the holocaust of our day.
Achieving the objectives of the Manifesto and saving the greatest possible number of people from death through starvation, became the Radical Party's top priority.
We the undersigned, men and women of science, of letters, of peace, with different religions, histories, and cultures, prizewinners because we search for honor and celebrate truths in life and life in truth, so that our works may be a universal testimony to dialogue, brotherhood, and of the common civilization of peace and progress; we the undersigned address an appeal to all men and women of good will, to the powerful and the humble, in their various responsibilities, so that dozens of millions of those who are suffering from starvation and underdevelopment, victims of the international political and economic disorder so widespread today, may be restored to life.
An unprecedented holocaust, whose horror includes in a single year all the horror of the exterminations which our generations saw in the first half of the century, is still happening today and continuing to widen, every moment that passes, the perimeter of barbarities and death in the world, no less than in our consciences.
All those who have taken stock of the holocaust, who are publicizing it and fighting it, are unanimous in defining politics first and foremost as the cause of this tragedy.
A new political will and a new specific organization of this will, which would be directly and obviously directed with topmost priority to overcome the causes of this tragedy and to avert its causes.
A method is necessary and an adequate procedure, among all those imaginable or which already exist, which should be immediately chosen or worked out and put into action. A system of projects is required, to converge with and to correspond to the many different forces, responsibilities, and consciences, to substantiate them. Maximum international authority is required, and it is essential for the States and the peoples too often kept in the dark as to the full possibilities of realizing a policy of life and salvation as some of the greatest spiritual authorities on earth are already requesting, to work together, or to unite their operations with punctual, steady and adequate objectives to combat and to overcome death in all its in its different strongholds. For death is spreading, chasing and condemning a large part of humanity.
We need to rebel against the false realism which induces people to resign themselves as though it were fatal, to what instead belongs to the responsibility of politics and the "established disorder".
We need to fight realistically so that the possible is done and not consumed, perhaps forever. We need to convert that "do good" aid which above all is a cheap way to buy a good conscience but which does not save those who rely on it, into something positive, both those cruel and infertile utopias which sacrifice men today in the name of a project for men, and today's society in the name of a project for society.
The citizens and politicians responsible must choose and vote, at their respective levels, electoral or parliamentary, governmental or international, new laws, new budgets, new projects and new initiatives that can be immediately directed at saving thousands of millions of men from malnutrition and underdevelopment, and hundreds of millions, in each generation, from death by starvation.
It is necessary for everybody and each individual to give legal value to the saving of human lives, to not killing, to not exterminating, not even through laziness, omission or indifference.
If world powers are responsible, they are not the only ones. If the unarmed would not resign themselves to being inert, if they would be more numerous in declaring non-obedience to other laws than this basic law of the rights of men and people, that in the first place is Justice, and the right to life; if the unarmed would go and organize themselves using their few but long lasting weapons political democracy and the great non-violent "Gandhian" non-violent actions, fixing themselves and imposing the choice of objectives form time to time limited and adequate; if this would happen, it would be certain, just as today it is certainly possible, that our times would not be catastrophic.
Our knowledge cannot consist in the inert and irresponsible contemplation of the horrible incumbent end.
Our knowledge, which tells us that the whole of humanity is itself in more and more danger of death, cannot but be the science of hope and salvation, the substance of all we believe and hope for.
If the means of information, if the powers that have wanted to honor us as a recognition for which we have been decorated, would like to listen and make others listen on this occasion also to our voice and our work and to all those who in these weeks are working in the world in the same direction, if the men and women, if people knew, would be informed, we do not doubt that the future could be different from what is looming and seems destined for everybody and the whole world.
But only in this case.
It is necessary to choose immediately, to act, to create, to live and make people live.
The Manifesto Appeal was signed by the following Nobel Prizewinners:
Vicente Aleixandre Literature, 1977
Hannes Alfven Physics, 1970
American Friends Service Committee Peace, 1947
Philip Anderson Physics, 1977
Christian Anfinsen Chemistry, 1972
Kenneth Arrow Economics, 1972
Julius Axelrod Medecine, 1970
David Baltimore Medecine, 1975
Samuel Beckett Literature, 1969
J. Georg Bednorz Physics, 1987
Saul Bellow Literature, 1976
Baruj Benacerraf Medecine, 1980
Gerd Binning Physics, 1986
Baruch S. Blumberg Medecine, 1976
Heinrich Boll Literature, 1972
Norman E. Borlaug Peace, 1970
Daniel Bovet Medecine 1957
Willy Brandt Peace, 1971
Joseph Brodsky Literature, 1987
Bureaux International de la Paix Peace 1970
Elias Canetti Literature, 1981
Owen Chamberlain Physics, 1959
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Physics, 1983
Stanley Cohen Medecine 1986
Mairead Corrigan Peace 1976
André Cournand Medecine, 1956
Jean Dausset Medecine, 1980
Gérard Debreu Economics, 1983
John Carew Eccles Medecine 1963
Odysseus Elytis Literature, 1979
Ernst Otto Fischer Chemistry, 1973
Paul John Flory Chemistry 1974
William A. Fowler Physics 1983
Alfonso G. Robles Peace 1982
Sheldon L. Glashow Physics 1979
William Golding Literature, 1983
Ragnar Granit Medecine, 1967
Roger Guillemin Medecine, 1977
Haldan Keffer Physics, 1964
Hartline Medecine, 1967
Odd Hassel Chemistry, 1969
Dudley Herschbach Chemistry 1986
Gerhard Herzberg Chemistry 1971
Dorothy Hodgkin Physics 1979
Robert Hogfsadter Chemistry;, 1964
David Hubel Medecine 1981
Franois Jacob Medecine , 1965
Brian Josephson Physics, 1973
Alfred Kastler Physics, 1966
Lawrence R. Klein Economics, 1980
Georges Kohler Medecine, 1984
Polykarp Kush Physics 1955
Yuan Tseh Lee Chemistry, 1986
Jean Marie Lehn Chemistry, L987
Rita Levi Montalcini Medecine 1986
Wassily Leontieff Economics, 1973
Salvador Luria Medecine 1969
André Lwoff Medecine 1965
Sean McBride Peace 1974
Cweslaw Milosz Literature, 1980
César Milstein Medecine 1984
Franco Modigliani Economics, 1985
Eugenio Montale Literature, 1975
Rudolf Massbauer Physics, 1961
Nevill Mott Physics, 1977
Gunnar Myrdal Economics, 1974
Daniel Nathans Medecine 1978
Louis Neel Physics, 1970
Marshall Nirenberg Medecine 1968
Philip NoelBaker Peace 1959
Severo Ochoa Medecine 1959
Linhus Pauling Chemistry 1954 and Peace 1962
Arno Penzias Physics 1978
Adolfo P. Esquivel Peace 1980
John Polyani Chemistry 1986
Rodney R. Porter Medecine 1972
Ilya Prigogine Chemistry, 1977
Quaker Peace and Service Peace, 1947
Isidor Isaac Rabi Physics 1944
Tadeus Reichstein Medecine, 1950
Burton Richter Physics, 1976
Heini Rohrer Physics 1986
Carlo Rubbia Physics, 1984
Martin Ryle Physics 1974
Anwar L. Sadat Peace 1978
Andrei D. Sacharov Peace 1975
Abdus Salam Physics 1979
Frederik Sanger Chemistry 1958 and 1980
Arthur Schawlow Physics, 1981
Jaroslav Seifert Literature, 1984
Kai Siegbahn Physics, 1981
Claude Simon Literature, 1985
Robert M. Solow Economics, 1987
Albet Szent Gyorgy Medecine 1937
Henry Taube Cemistry 1983
Hugo Theorell Medecine 1955
Jan Tinbergen Economics 1969
Nikolaas Tinbergen Medecine 1973
Sir Alexander Todd Chemistry 1957
Susumu Tonegawa Medecine 1987
Charles Hard Townes Physics 1964
Desmond Tutu Peace 1984
Simon Van Der Meer Physics 1984
Ulf von Euler Medecine 1970
George Wald Medecine 1967
Lech Walesa Peace 1983
Ernest Walton Physics 1951
James Dewey Watson Medecine 1962
Patrick White Literature 1973
Elie Wiesel Peace 1986
Torsten Wiesel Medecine 1981
Maurice Wilkins Medecine 19962
Betty Williams Peace 1976